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THE IMPORTANCE OF NUTRITION IN HEALTH OF HEART AND VESSEL


A healthy diet and lifestyle is our most important weapon to fight cardiovascular disease. However, there is disagreement about the definition of the components of a healthy diet. Some foods have passed the test and have been accepted into dietary guidelines. While this list initially included fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, they have recently added items such as olive oil, fish, and nuts.

This article will review the latest evidence on today's "healthy" foods (eg fruit and vegetables) and nutrients (eg fiber, omega-3s). In addition, the relationship between the most negatively spoken foods (egg, milk, meat and salt) and cardiovascular diseases will be evaluated.

BENEFITS FOR HEART HEALTH

Fruits and vegetables

Fruits and vegetables have always been considered health-promoting foods. Many prospective studies have shown that fruit/vegetable intake reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Therefore, current dietary guidelines recommend increasing fruit/vegetable intake to 5 servings per day.

However, while improvements in blood pressure and microvascular function have been demonstrated with an increase in fruit/vegetable intake, the precise relationship between plasma lipid levels, diabetes mellitus (DM) and weight gain has not been clarified.

In a study conducted in England, the eating habits of 65,226 people between 2001-13 were examined. In the study, it was shown that eating more than 7 servings of fruit/vegetables per day significantly reduced the risk of death from cancer and heart disease by 25-31%. This study also showed that fruit juice consumption did not provide a significant benefit. Paradoxically, canned and frozen fruit have been shown to increase the risk of death by 17%. In conclusion, observational studies have shown that a sustained risk reduction is achieved with an increase in fruit and vegetable intake, with the greatest benefit coming from vegetable intake rather than fruit, and avoidance of canned or frozen fruit.

Fibrous foods and cardiovascular health

The term "dietary fiber" encompasses a wide variety of molecules whose structural and functional properties can vary greatly. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble. Soluble fibers; Substances such as cellulose, pectin, inulin, or B-glucan are not hydrolyzed in the stomach but are fermented by the intestinal microflora.

Main physicochemical properties of soluble fibers; viscosity, gel forming capacity and fermentability. Increasing viscosity slows gastric emptying (increases satiety) and transit time. It contributes to the stabilization of the glucose and insulin response and reduces the absorption of dietary cholesterol. The third important feature is fermentation, and short-chain fatty acids produced by colonic bacteria that can ferment the fiber inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. Thus, dietary fiber helps reduce low-density lipoprotein levels in the blood.

The main physiological effect associated with the intake of insoluble fiber is the reduction of intestinal transit time: its volume and water retention abilities promote increased stool mass and facilitate the movement of food through the gut due to mechanical stimulation of the intestinal walls. Tension in the intestines increases the feeling of fullness and may contribute to the reduction of calorie intake. In addition, accelerating intestinal transit minimizes the interaction between intestinal epithelium and potential carcinogenic agents, reducing the risk of developing colorectal cancer in particular. Fermentable fibers not only function as a substrate for microbial growth, but also have a prebiotic effect, supporting the growth of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli by changing the intestinal pH. Because of these existing mechanisms, it is concluded that diets rich in fiber reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease.

Fibrous foods;

Broccoli

Brussels sprouts

Asparagus

Artichoke

acorn

green peas

turnip green

carrot

cauliflower

Fruits

avocado

Apple

Strawberry

Banana

Raspberry

Almond

Walnut

Peanut

Haricot bean

Kidney bean

Lentil

Barley

Oat

Sweetcorn


Green Tea, Coffee, and Spirits

Green tea has been considered a healthy beverage for thousands of years. The Chinese believed it could prolong life and improve mental function. Today, green tea is consumed all over the world and is thought to reduce the risk of various diseases, from certain types of cancer to dementia and obesity. With regard to cardiovascular disease, regular drinking of green tea has been associated with reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and blood pressure that may be clinically significant. However, long-term follow-up is needed to assess the long-term effects of green tea intake.

Wine and coffee, similar to green tea, contain phytochemicals that protect against heart disease. Recent studies, beer and

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