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THYROID GLAND DISEASES AND TREATMENT


IN WHICH PATIENTS IS THYROID SURGERY DONE?

For patients with thyroid cancer.

· Patients with suspected thyroid cancer.

Thyroid surgery can be performed without cancer

When the thyroid gland is enlarged and pressing on the surrounding structures

In cases where the thyroid gland grows excessively and reaches a level that will disturb it externally.

Thyroid surgery can be performed in patients with Graves' disease, where the thyroid gland is overworked, if the gland is large.

HOW MUCH GLAND IS REMOVED IN THYROID SURGERY?

How much of the gland will be removed during the operation, whether all or part of it will be removed, is decided by informing the patient before the operation, depending on the condition of the disease. In thyroid cancers, graves disease, and the presence of multiple nodules in both lobes, the entire thyroid tissue is usually removed.

After proving that there is no cancer during surgery in unilaterally located thyroid nodules, unilateral thyroidectomy can be performed and the intact thyroid lobe can be left behind. All these possibilities are discussed in detail with the patient before the operation and decisions are made in this way.

What kind of preparation is made before the operation?

Many examinations were performed before the operation and the decision was made to operate in line with these examinations. Examinations before thyroid surgery:

Thyroid Blood tests

Thyroid ultrasonography (USG)

Thyroid scintigraphy

Removal of a thin needle from the thyroid nodule under USG guidance.

After the decision for surgery is made with these tests, the general condition of the patient is checked, his blood pressure and heart rate, and whether he has any other diseases, and if possible, these diseases are tried to be corrected before the surgery. If it can't be corrected, it will be checked to see if it will hinder the surgery. Main examinations to be done after the decision of surgery

Blood tests (such as thyroid hormones, sugar, urea and liver tests, blood count, bleeding time, hepatitis markers)

heart graph

Lung film

Before the operation, it can be checked to see if there is a problem in the patient's vocal cords.

The anesthesiologist, who will put the patient to sleep during the operation, sees the patient with all these tests and his/her file before the operation. In the meantime, be sure to tell your doctor about all your illnesses, medications you are using and any allergies you have.

THINGS TO DO BEFORE THYROID SURGERY

1- All cigarettes, alcohol or addictive drugs should be stopped.

2- Since the operation will be performed under general anesthesia, after 12 o'clock at night, one should be completely fasted and nothing should be taken by mouth, including liquids.

3-We should consult our doctor about the drugs we are using, and if there are blood thinners in them, they should generally be discontinued 5-7 days before and instead, a subcutaneous injection should be used. If you have diabetes, you need to stop your diabetes medication and be treated with short-acting insulin. Only blood pressure medications should be taken with very little water on the morning of the day of surgery.

4-Take a shower in the morning of the day of surgery and do your personal cleaning.

5- After you have been adequately informed about the surgery, you must sign the consent form. If there is a point that you do not understand or you are confused about, you should ask your surgeon again and again.

WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURGERY TO DO THYROID SURGERY?

Thyroid surgery is an operation that requires a very fine surgical workmanship. Since the thyroid gland is located very close to many vital organs in the human neck, it requires a very good surgical workmanship in order not to damage these organs during the operation. The doctor who will perform the thyroid surgery should have done a lot of this surgery. It is not enough just to have had many of these surgeries; It is also important how many of his surgeries were unsuccessful.

HOW LONG DOES THYROID SURGERY TAKE?

The operation is performed in the operating room, usually under general anesthesia and very rarely local anesthesia. Although the duration of the operation varies according to the type of surgery to be performed, it usually takes 1.5-2.5 hours. A part or all of the thyroid gland is removed by making a necklace-shaped incision on the neck. After leaving the operating room, they stay in the recovery room for about an hour.

HOW LONG DO I STAY IN THE HOSPITAL FOR THE SURGERY?

If only thyroid surgery has been performed, it is usually 1-2 days.

When can I start my job after the surgery?

If there is no extra problem during or after the surgery, you will recover within 15-20 days and continue your normal life.

WHAT COMPLAINTS MAY OCCUR IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE SURGERY?

Since surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia, patients usually do not remember much about the operating room and recovery room. They remember what happened after they came to their room. In the meantime, there is a feeling of tiredness and exhaustion caused by general anesthesia. In addition, there may be pain at the surgery site. Apart from this, there may be some pain in your arm and back due to the thyroid surgery position. These pains are relieved with painkillers.

General a

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